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Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells 
     1. Compare the two cell types 
     2. Describe the current theories regarding the origin of eukaryotic organelles 
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General Cell Information
>The cell is the smallest unit of life.
>Your body has about 100 trillion cells.
>All cells have DNA and cytoplasm.
>There are two basic types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
> Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that eukaryotic cells contain many membrane bound

Prokaryotic Cells
                - have no nucleus 
                - have no membrane-bound organelles 
                - make up the kingdoms Monera (bacteria) and Archaea
                     [See more info on The Six Kingdoms]
                - prokaryotes are more primitive than eukaryotes
                - cells have a single circular chromosome
                - have ribosomes surrounded by a cell membrane and a cell wall
                - may have photosynthetic pigments (i.e. cyanobacteria)
                - some prokaryotes have an external flagellum for locomotion or pili for adhesion
                - shapes: baccilli (rods), cocci (round), spirilla (helical)
                - prokaryotes were the first forms of life on earth, evolving over 3.5 billion years ago
Prokaryotic Structure
   Internally, prokaryotes have a simple internal structure, and no membrane-bound organelles.
   Nucleoid – DNA in the cell is generally found in this central region. Though it isn't surrounded by a membrane, it is visibly separate from the rest of the cell interior.
   Ribosomes – Ribosomes make the cytoplasm of prokaryotes look granular appearance in electron micrographs. They are smaller than ribosomes in eukaryotic cells, but they do the same job of translating the genetic message in messenger RNA so as to produce proteins.
   Storage granules – Nutrients may be stored in the cytoplasm in the form of lipids, glycogen , polyphosphate (and sometimes sulfur or nitrogen).
   Endospore - Some prokaryotes form spores that are very resistant to drought, high temperatures and other hazards of nature. Once the hazard is removed, the spore germinates to create a new prokaryotes.
   Externally, prokaryotes have some or all of the following structures:
   Capsule – Protective layer of polysaccharides (and sometimes proteins) around the cell.  It is often associated with pathogenic bacteria because it serves as a barrier against phagocytosis by leukocytes (white blood cells).
Prokaryotic cell    Outer membrane – This lipid bilayer is found in Gram negative bacteria and is the source of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these bacteria. LPS is toxic.
   Cell wall – The cell wall maintains the overall shape of a prokaryotic cell. It is made up of peptidoglycan (polysaccharides and protein).  The three primary shapes in bacteria are coccus (round), bacillus (rods) and spirillum (spiral or helical). Mycoplasma are bacteria that have no cell wall and therefore have no definite shape.
   Periplasmic space – This is found only in prokaryotes with both an outer membrane and plasma membrane (i.e. Gram negative bacteria). In the space between the two membranes are enzymes and other proteins that help digest and move nutrients into the cell.
   Plasma membrane –  This is a lipid bilayer similar to the plasma membrane of other cells. There are numerous proteins moving in or on this layer that transport waste, ions, and nutrients across the membrane.
    Appendages: prokaryotes may have the following appendages:
   Pili – These are hollow, hair-like extensions made of protein allow prokaryotes to attach to other cells.  One particular type, the sex pilus, allows the transfer of DNA from one prokaryote to another. Pili are also called fimbriae.
   Flagella - Flagella are long appendages which rotate by means of a "motor" located just under the cytoplasmic membrane. They are used to move the cell around.  Prokaryotes may have one, a few, or many flagella in different places on the cell.
Eukaryotic Cells
      - have a nucleus 
      - have organelles (compartments that enable a cell to function by making and releasing energy, helping the cell to maintain homeostasis, and enabling a cell to reproduce)
      - all other cells (other than bacteria) 
      - found in the Protista, Fungi, Plant, and Animal kingdoms
      - eukaryotes date back 1.2-1.5 billion years ago
      - have 1000 times more DNA than prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cell Eukaryotic Structure :
   - nucleus - controls the cell’s activities; contains the DNA 
   - cell membrane - a tough, flexible lipid bilayer made of phospholipids, protein, and other molecules.
   - cytoplasm - jellylike substance that fills the inside of a cell 
   - ribosomes - make proteins 
   - mitochondria - produce energy in the cell 
   - endoplasmic reticulum - "tunnels" in the cytoplasm that allow materials to move through the cell easier 
   - Golgi body - stores, processes, and secretes materials 
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have cell walls, vacuoles, & chloroplasts.

Plants only:
    - cell wall - rigid surrounding of plant cells 
    - chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll in plants; this is where the plant’s food is produced 
    - vacuoles - large bodies in plant cells that hold water, waste, etc.

Plant cell

Theories on the origin of eukaryotic organelles:
     The two major theories are Endosymbiosis and Autogenous models.

     Endosymbiotis theory:
          > This is the most popular scientific theory was first attributed to Lynn Margulis, though related concepts by others (i.e. Mereschkowsky) have been around for years. 
          > It is theorized that a larger anaerobic prokaryotic cell “swallowed” a smaller aerobic one, and the aerobic prokaryote became an organelle ... a mitochondrion ... of the larger cell. 
          > This theory only applies to mitochondria and choloroplasts.
          > Within the idea of endosybiosis, there are different theories as to the exact type and sequence of evolution.  Some of these have been proposed by: Mereschkowsky (1905, 1910); Goksøyr (1967); Sagan
(1967); de Duve (1969); Stanier (1970); Raff and Mahler (1972); Uzzel and Spolsky (1974); Bogorad (1975); Cavalier-Smith (1975); John and Whatley (1975); Whatley et al. (1979);  Doolittle (1980); Van Valen and Maiorana (1980); Margulis (1981, 2000); Cavalier-Smith (1987); Van Valen and Maiorana (1980); Zillig et al. (1989);  Lake and Rivera (1994); Gupta and Golding (1996); Moreira and Lopez-Garcia (1998); Horiike et al. (2001).
          > It is sometimes called SET (serial endosymbiosis theory), exogenous, or xenogenous hypothesis.
          > The elements of this theory are as follows:
              1. Mitochondria of eukaryotes evolved from aerobic bacteria living within their host cell.
              2 The chloroplasts of eukaryotes evolved from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria (autotrophic prokaryotes).
              3. Eukaryotic cilia and flagella may have arisen from endosymbiotic spirochetes. The basal bodies
from which eukaryotic cilia and flagella develop would have been able to create the mitotic spindle and thus made mitosis possible.
     - Evidence for the Endosymbiotis Theory: 
           1. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA in circular molecules like the prokaryotes. 
           2. These organelles have their own ribosomes that are smaller than those in the cytoplasm.  These ribosomes are the same size as those in prokaryotes. 
           3. The protein synthesis of these organelles is semi-independent of that occurring in the cytoplasm and it is inhibited by the same antibiotic that works on prokaryotes. 
           4. These organelles are found enclosed in membranes as though they were captured in a vacuole of a larger cell. 
           5. Mitochondria and chloroplasts divide by fission, not mitosis.

     Autogenous Theory
              1. Eukaryotes arose directly from a single prokaryote ancestor by compartmentalization of functions brought about by infoldings of the prokaryote plasma membrane
              2. This model is usually accepted for the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, and the nuclear membrane, and of organelles enclosed by a single membrane (such as lysosomes). 
              3. According to the autogenous hypothesis, mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved within the protoeukaryote cell by compartmentalizing plasmids or vesicles of DNA within a pinched off invagination of the cell membrane. 
              4. Key contributors have been Klein and Cronquist (1967) and Cavalier-Smith (1975, 1978). 
              5. Organelles evolved gradually in steps.

     Other theories:
          - Thermoreduction model: eukaryotes came first, and prokaryotes evolved (reductive evolution) from them; focuses more on gene and genome organization
          - Ox-tox model: the ancestor of mitochondria was an aerobic proteobacterium; the host was an anaerobic, primitively amitochondriate eukaryote; addresses the origin of mitochondria, not the complete eukaryote cell
          - Panspermia (or Cosmozoan): cells came from somewhere else (outer space) and seeded Earth
          - Biblical (or Scientific Creationism): both types of cells came from a Creator

ADDENDUM: The Six Kingdoms

1) Archaebacteria
      - Archaebacteria are organized into three phyla of bactreria that are found mainly in extreme habitats where little else can survive. 
      - All known Archaebacteria live without oxygen(anerobic) and obtain their energy from inorganic molecules or from light. 

2) Eubacteria
      - Eubacteria (“true bacteria”) live in a wide variety of habitats and obtain their energy needs in a variety of ways. 
      - The main phyla are organized by how they obtain energy: 
           1) heterotrophs: need to consume organic molecules for energy
           2) autotrophs: make their own food
           3) chemotrophs: obtain their energy from chemosynthetic breakdown of inorganic (nonliving matter - no carbon) substances such as sulfur and nitorgen compounds.

3) Protists: single and multicellular organisms that are plant-like, animal-like and fungi-like. There are 12 phyla. 

4) Fungi: many-celled organisms that decompose dead matter in our environment. There are 4 phyla.

5) Plants: many-celled organisms that are characterized by their tough cell walls and photosynthetic abilities. There are 9 divisions.

6) Animals: a very diverse group of 9 phyla and very large, numbering over one million identified species. 

    - The Prokaryotic Cell
    - The Eukaryotic Cell
    - Eukaryotic Origins: Revolution in the Classification of Life
    - The origin of the eukaryotic cell: A genomic investigation 
    - Were Bacteria the First Forms of Life on Earth?
    - Organelle discovered in prokaryote
    - Cell Biology
         - Characteristics of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    - Did cells acquire organelles such as mitochondria by gobbling up other cells?
    - Endosymbiosis and The Origin of Eukaryotes
    - On the evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic cell
    - Does endo-symbiosis explain the origin of the nucleus?
    - Changing perspectives on the origin of eukaryotes [PDF]
    - Early Evolution poster
    - The Biology Project: Cell Biology: Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, & Viruses
    - Prokaryotic Cells
    - Eukaryotic Cells
    - The difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    - Cellular Organization
    - Prokaryotic Cells / Eukaryotic Cells
    - Prokaryotic Cells / Eukaryotic Cells
    - Prokaryotic Cells
    - Endosymbiotic Theory
    - Prokaryotes / Eukaryotes
    - Newsletter Refuting the Idea of the Endosymbiont Theory
    - An Overview of Endosymbiotic Models for the Origins of Eukaryotes
    - The origin of the eukaryotic cell: A genomic investigation
    - Systematics of the Eukaryota
    - Protist Image Data
    - Secondary Endosymbiosis: An Engine of Eukaryotic Diversity
    - The Cell: A Molecular Approach

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