|The Six Kingdoms
The latest research divided all living things
into 6 kingdoms. The newest is Archaebacteria. These bacteria
were considered to be so different from the other bacteria, they deserved
their own kingdom.
- Eubacteria - Protista - Fungi - Plantae - Animalia
The Archaebacteria are organized
into three phyla of bactreria that are found mainly in extreme habitats
where little else can survive. All known Archaebacteria live without oxygen(anerobic)
and obtain their energy from inorganic molecules or from light. The following
is some basic information on the three phylum.
This type of bacteria produces methane. Many such species live in the intestines
of animals. They help breakdown food in the intestines and also provide
essential nutrients. In return, the bacteria get a source of energy. This
is an example of a mutualistic symbiotic relationship, which is when two
organisms work together to survive.
This type of bacteria can only live in bodies of concentrated salt water.
such as the Great Salt Lake (Utah) and the Dead Sea (Middle East).
A third phylum includes bacteria that are found in the hot, acidic waters
of sulfur springs. These species can handle temperatures near 80
degrees Celcius and pH levels as low as 2.
Eubacteria, the second group
of Monerans, make up their own Kingdom.They live in a wide variety of habitats
and obtain their energy needs in a variety of ways. The main phylum are
orgainzed by how they obtain energy.
This type of bacteria is found just about everywhere. These bacteria need
organic molecules as an energy source but are not adapted for trapping
the food that contains these molecules. Thus, some live as parasites, absorbing
nutrients from living organisms. Others live as saprobes, organisms that
feed on dead organisms or organic wastes. Saprobes help recycle the nutrients
from decomposing organisms back into the environment, so those nutrients
can be used for new or existing life.
These bacteria are photosynthetic autotrophs. An autotroph is an organism
that can make its own food. This is done through photosynthesis, a process
that uses the suns energy to make sugar molecules. Most Cyanobacteria are
blue-green in color, which is why they are often called blue-green bacteria.
They are common in ponds, lakes,streams and moist areas of land. They are
composed of chains of bacteria cells, an exception to the rule that Monerans
are unicellular. These chains and the existence of chlorophyll (photosynthetic
pigment) help provide evidence for bacteria being the ancestors of plants.
The third phylum is the chemosynthetic autotrophs. These bacteria obtain
their energy from chemosynthetic breakdown of inorganic (nonliving matter
- no carbon) substances such as sulfur and nitorgen compounds. Some of
these bacteria are important in converting nitrogen in the atmosphere to
forms that can be used by plants.
Protists are single and multicellular
organisms that are plant-like, animal-like and fungi-like. They evolved
from bacteria and represent the intermediate step in the evolution of the
other three kingdoms. There are 12 phyla in this kingdom, most of which
live in water.
Below is a list of the 12 phyla
which are organized into three groups; plant-like, animal-like and fungi-like.
The links are the scientific name, while the common name is in parentheses.
I. Plant-like Protists (Algae) - 6 phyla
Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
Rhodophyta (Red Algae)
Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
II. Animal-like Protists (Protozoa) - 4 phyla
III. Fungus-like Protists - 2 phyla
Myxomycota (Slime molds)
Oomycota (Water Molds
Fungi are many-celled organisms
that decompose dead matter in our environment. Thus, they are Consumers
and a very important one. Fungi and bacteria are responsible for doing
the major cleaning role in our environment. In fact, they are in competition
with one another for materials to decompose. Fungi are found in soil, dead
trees and even on your bread sometimes.
There are four phylum in the
Plants are many-celled organisms
that are characterized by their tough cell walls and photosynthetic abilities.
That is, they use a pigment called chlorophyll that can take sun light
energy and convert it into food energy or sugar. Because plants can make
their own food, they are know as Producers. The food chain begins with
Producers, who supply food for the Consumers of the world. Nearly 300,000
plants have been identified and their environments range from the deep
ocean to mountain tops. Plants most likely evolved from plant-like protists
about 420 million years ago.
The Nine Divsions Of The Plant
of Seedless Plants:
Bryophyta (Mosses and Liverworts) - 20,000 species
Sphenophyta (Horsetails) - 15 species
Lycophyta (Club mosses) - 1,000 species
Pterophyta (Ferns) - 12,000 species
of Seed Plants
Angiosperms (flowering Plants) - vascular plants that produce seeds that
are enclosed inside a fruit.
Anthophyta (monocots and dicots) - 250,000
Gymnosperms (Naked Seed)mnosperms - vat produce seeds onclcones.
Coniferophyta - 550 species
Ginkophyta - 1 species
Cycadophyta - 100 species
Gnetophyta - 70 species
The Animal Kingdom is very diverse
and very large, numbering over one million identified species. Some are
vertebrates(backbone), while most (97%) are invertebrates(no backbone).
All animals share the following characteristics; cannot make own food,
digest their food, move from place to place, and have many Eukaryotic cells.
Animals are classified into nine major phyla.
Sponges : Porifera
Cnidarians : Cnidaria
Flatworms : Platyhelminthes
Roundworms : Nematoda
Mollusks : Molluska
Annelids : Annelida
Arthropods : Arthropoda
Echinoderms : Echinoderm
Chordates : Chordata